Technical Program
Thursday, November 30
Data Collection and Analysis 1
P. Kvam (Georgia Institute of Technology)
R. Nakai (Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute)

Thursday (11/30) 9:00 - 10:30
A Statistical Analysis on Failure-to-open/close Probability of Pneumatic Valves in Sodium Cooling Systems
K. Kurisaka (Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute) [Kurisaka]
The Centralised Reliability Database ZEDB in Germany for Safety Related Components of Nuclear Power Plants, Concept and Data of the Evaluation '99
G. Becker (RISA Sicherheitsanalysen GmbH), J. Blombach (Siemens AG) [Blombach]
Component Reliability Data from 1982 to 1997 on 49 Japanese LWRs Accumulated in the Nuclear Component Reliability Data System.
Y. Kirimoto, H. Emukai, A. Sasaki (Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry) [Kirimoto]
Derivation of Shutdown Initiating Event Frequencies
J.T. Mitman (EPRI), K.N. Fleming (ERIN Engineering and Research)

Human Factors in JCO Accident
F. Tanabe (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute)
H.S. Blackman (Idaho National Engineering Laboratory)
Thursday (11/30) 9:00 - 10:30
An Analysis on Human Factor Issues in Criticality Accident at a Uranium Processing Plant
K. Sasou, H. Goda, Y. Hirotsu (Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industory) [Sasou]
Root Cause Analysis of JCO Accident Based on Decision-Making Model
T. Kohda (Kyoto University), Y. Nojiri (Marine Technical College), K. Inoue (Kyoto University) [Kohda]
Cognitive Systems Engineering Analysis of the JCO Criticality Accident
F. Tanabe, Y. Yamaguchi (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute) [Tanabe]

Risk Informed Regulatory Status in Other Countries
P. Kafka (GRS)
M.F. Versteeg (Nuclear Safety Inspectorate)

Thursday (11/30) 9:00 - 10:30
Extending Regulatory Guidance on PSA in Germany
H.P. Berg, R. Goertz (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz) [Goertz]
Out-Look for Risk Assessment and Risk-Informed Regulations
S. Chakraborty, C. Breutel (Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate), M. Khatib-Rahbar (Energy Research,Inc.) [Breutel]
Risk Assessment of Mine Safety Equipment - Gas Measurement System in a Coal Mine -
A. Tanaka, T. Komai, K. Noda, Y. Nakagawa, M. Sagisaka, A. Kishimoto, M. Jinguji, M. Kosugi, S. Kunimatsu, T. Isei (National Institute for Resources and Environment) [Tanaka]

Weather and Railways
M. Shimamura (East Japan Railway Co.)

Thursday (11/30) 9:00 - 10:30
A Short-Time Strong Wind Prediction Model for Railway Application
U. Hoppmann, J.-M. Franke, St. Koenig (Institut fuer Umweltmessung und Planung), T. Tielkes, G. Matschke (Deutsche Bahn AG) [Tielkes]
Effects of Strong Cross Winds on High-Speed Trains - a Risk Assessment Approach
G. Matschke, Th. Tielkes, P. Deeg, B. Schulte-Werning (Deutsche Bahn AG), P. Locher, Ch. Fermaud, H. Bohnenblust (Ernst Basler + Partners Ltd.) [Locher]
A Short-Term Wind Warning System to Counteract the Effects of Cross Wind on High Speed Trains
Th. Tielkes, G. Matschke, B. Schulte-Werning (Deutsche Bahn AG), P. Locher, Ch. Fermaud, H. Bohnenblust (Ernst Basler + Partner Ltd.)
Real-time Train Control under Strong Wind Risk- Methodology and Tools
A. Togari-Ohta (East Japan Railway Company), T. Sakao (Mitsubishi Research Institute, Inc.), M. Shimamura (East Japan Railway Company) [Togari-Ohta]

Health and Medical Services 1
S. Nishimura (Kyoto Univ.)

Thursday (11/30) 9:00 - 10:30
Dynamic Model of Health Investment: Theoretical and Empirical Analysis of the Influence of Risks over Time and Age on Medical Expenditures
T. Ida (Kyoto University) [Ida]
Economic Evaluations In Japan: A Review of Published Studies, Methodological Issues and Practice
J. Nixon, F. Pang (University of York) [Nixon]
Individual vs. Collective Perception of Disease Risk: Which will be economically Efficient Measures for Health Expenditures?
R. Watanabe, S. Nishimura (Kyoto University) [Watanabe]

Fire Safety Assessment 1
N. Siu (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission)
L. Andersson (Sycon Energikonsult AB)

Thursday (11/30) 9:00 - 10:30
French Fire PSA Methodology
M. Chaussard, R. Bertrand, F. Bonneval, J.M. Mattei (IPSN) [Chaussard]
Insights from the Blayais 1 NPP Fire PSA
G. Barrachin, M. Chaussard, R. Bertrand, F. Bonneval, J.M. Mattei (IPSN) [Barrachin]
Determination of Cumulative Ignition Time Distribution for PSA of the Next Target in Case of a Potential Cable Tunnel Fire of a NPP
S. Hostikka, O. Keski-Rahkonen (VTT Building Technology), J. Marttila, R. Virolainen (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK)) [Keski-Rahkonen]
Development of Fire Risk Assessment Method Caused by Earthquake
N. Mitomo, H. Matsukura, T. Matsuoka (Ship Research Institute), K. Suzuki (Hosei university) [Mitomo]

External Event (Seismic)
Sunkoo Kang (KOPEC)
M. Sakagami (NUPEC)
Thursday (11/30) 9:00 - 10:30
Seismic Margin Analysis for Japanese ABWR Plant
K. Miyata, T. Zama, M. Yoneyama (Tokyo Electric Power Company), S. Visweswaran (GE Nuclear Energy), M. Fujii (Toshiba Corporation), K. Hisamochi (Hitachi Ltd) [Miyata]
Conceptual Design of Operator Support System under Seismic Conditions
T. Oikawa, K. Muramatsu (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute), T. Kasahara, K. Kawamata, H. Morota (Computer Software Development Co., Ltd.) [Oikawa]
Comparison of Trial Seismic PSA and Seismic Margin Analysis for a BWR
M. Sakagami, M. Hirano (Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation) [Sakagami]
Evaluation of Component Fragility for Seismic PSA on Japanese LWRs
M. Nishihata, A. Shibuya, M. Sakagami, W. Mizumachi (Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation) [Nishihata]

Data Collection and Analysis 2
Jussi K. Vaurio (Fortum Power and Heat, Loviisa Power Plant)
Dries Gryffroy (AIB-Vincotte Nuclear)

Thursday (11/30) 10:45 - 12:15
Effective Empirical Parametric Estimation of Failure Rates and Event Frequencies
J.K. Vaurio (Fortum Power and Heat), K.E. Jankala (Fortum Engineering Ltd) [Vaurio]
On Generalized Frequency Distribution of Accidents Considering Their Damage Magnitude
S. Hanayasu (National Institute of Industrial Safety), W.H. Tang (Hong Kong University of Science and Technology) [Hanayasu]
Predictive Analysis for Common Cause Failure in Probabilistic Safety Assessment
P.H. Kvam, J.G. Miller (Georgia Institute of Technology) [Kvam]

Panel on JCO Accident
K. Furuta (Univ. of Tokyo)

Thursday (11/30) 10:45 - 12:15
Human Factors in JCO Criticality Accident
K. Furuta (University of Tokyo) [Furuta]
JCO Criticality Accident as POST-LOCA: Poor Structure Induced Loss of Organizational Control Accident
Y. Furuhama (Tokyo Electric Power Company) [Furuhama]
Root Cause as Degradation of Safety Culture and Safety Regulation
H. Ujita (Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation) [Ujita]
Problems of Administrative Response in the JCO-Accident
Y. Shuto, E. Yagi (Research Institute for Social Safety) [Shuto]

Risk Informed Regulatory Status in USA
G.E. Apostolakis (Massachusetts Institute of Technology)
S.M. Wong (U.S.Regulatory Commission)

Thursday (11/30) 10:45 - 12:15
An Approach for Risk Management and Regulatory Applications
S.M. Wong (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission) [Wong]
A Framework for Regulatory Requirements and Industry Standards for New Nuclear Power Plants
F.A. Duran, A.L. Camp (Sandia National Laboratories), G.E. Apostolakis, M.W. Golay (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) [Duran]
Modifying Reactor Safety Regulations to Reflect Risk Information
M.A. Cunningham, M.T Drouin, T.L. King, A.C. Thadani, T.L. Bergman, M.C. Cheok (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission) [Cunningham]
On the Role of Safety Culture in Risk-Informed Regulation
J.N. Sorensen (ACRS, USNRC), G.E. Apostolakis (ACRS, USNRC), D.A. Powers (ACRS, USNRC) [Apostolakis]

Safety Assessment of Complex Systems in Transportation
C. Spitzer (TUV Energy and Systems Technology)
Y. Sato (Tokyo University of Mercantile Marine)

Thursday (11/30) 10:45 - 12:15
DSS for Risk Assessment of Transportation of Dangerous Goods Integrating Tunnel Fires Assessment and Simulation
A.V. Gheorghe, N.P. Hoj (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology), D. Vamanu (Institute of Atomic Physics), W. Kroger (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology) [Gheorghe]
Quantitative Accident Sequence Analysis for Railway Transportation of Dangerous Goods. Modeling Risks for Derailment and Collision
I. Papazoglou (N.C.S.R. "Demokritos"), A. Gheorghe, M. Engel, E. Moresi (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology), D. Vamanu (Institute of Atomic Physics) [Gheorghe]
Safety Case Development by Civil Aviation for the European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS)
B. Tiemeyer (EUROCONTROL Experimental Centre) [Tiemeyer]
Human Factors Insight and Reliability Data from Accident Reports: The case of ADREP-2000 for Aviation Safety Assessment
P.C. Cacciabue (Joint Research Centre, EC) [Cacciabue]

Health and Medical Services 2
Tae Suk Suh (Catholic University Medical College)

Thursday (11/30) 10:45 - 12:15
The Development of a Risk Management Model for Communicable Disease Control in the United Kingdom
C. Kara-Zaitri (University of Bradford), R. Gelletlie, H. Barnes, N. Black, D. Walker, P. Hatton, M. Schweiger, D. Wilson (Consultant in Communicable Disease Control (CCDC)) [Kara-Zaitri]
Effects of Differential Dental Risk Communication on the Subjective Utilities Perceived by the Patients
S. Sugimori (Tokyo Gakugei University) [Sugimori]
Discretion, Cooperation and Information in Medical Profession's Performance: Game Approach to Risk Management in Japanese Hospital
F. Yasukawa (Hiroshima International University) [Yasukawa]

Fire Safety Assessment 2
O. Keski-Rahkonen (VTT Building Technology)
T. Uchida (Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation)

Thursday (11/30) 10:45 - 12:15
The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Fire Risk Research Program: Status and Results
N.O. Siu, H. Woods (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission), S. Nowlen (Sandia National Laboratories), A. Mosleh (University of Maryland) [Siu]
The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Review of Licensees' Individual Plant Examination of External Events (IPEEE) Submittals: Fire Analyses
A.M. Rubin, N.O. Siu (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission), S.P. Nowlen, T.A. Wheeler (Sandia National Laboratory), M. Kazarians (Kazarians and Associates) [Rubin]
Development of Fire Severity Factors to be used in Fire PSA for Japanese LWRs
T. Uchida, M. Fukuda, M. Hirano (Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation) [Uchida]
Methodology for the Treatment of Model Uncertainty: An Application to Fire Risk Models
E.L. Droguett (Federal University of Bahia), A. Mosleh, F. Joglar, F. Mowrer (University of Maryland) [Droguett]

Level 2 PSA
J.M. Evrard (IPSN)
M. Kajimoto (NUPEC)

Thursday (11/30) 10:45 - 12:15
Evaluation of the s-mode in the Level2 PSA
J. Collinet, B. Clouet, J. M. Evrard, B. Chaumont (Institute for Protection and Nuclear Safety), R. Moureau (CEA) [Clouet]
IPSN Level 2 Probabilistic Safety Assessment of 900 MW PWRs
J.M. Evrard, B. Chaumont, B. Roussel, M. Durin (Institute for Protection and Nuclear Safety) [Evrard]
Quantification of Physical Phenomena and Assessment of Uncertainties in the IPSN Level 2 PSA
B. Chaumont, J.M. Evrard, B. Roussel, M. Durin (Institute for Protection and Nuclear Safety) [Evrard]
Evaluation of Containment Failure Frequency for a Japanese 4 Loop PWR Plant with a Large Dry Pre-stressed Concrete Containment
O. Kawabata, M. Kajimoto, N. Tanaka (Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation) [Kawabata]

Integration of Risk Models and Quantification
S. Vidal (EDF)
A. Camp (Sandia National Laboratory)

Thursday (11/30) 13:30 - 15:00
Development of a Living PSA System for Fugen NPS
M. Sotsu, Y. Iguchi (Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute) [Iguchi]
Development of Reliability Analysis Tools and Database for Integrated Risk Management System (IRMS)
S.H. Han, K.R. Min, W.D. Jung, S.H. Kim (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute), D.S. Yim, C.K. Lee (Korea Industrial Safety Corporation) [Han]
Reliability Engineering Optimisation of Design and Support- Application to the Exploratory Development of New Engines
S. Patrouillault, M. Sassatelli (Bertin Technologies), C. Thiebault, D. Sauvage (Snecma Moteurs) [Patrouillault]
Last Methodological Developments Introduced for the Building of the N4 PSA (1400 MW EDF Power Plants)
S. Vidal, M. Balmain, J. Cucciniello (EDF) [Vidal]

Panel on MOSAIC 1
Y. Fujita (Technova)

Thursday (11/30) 13:30 - 15:00

Software Test and Verification
J.R. de Almeida Junior (Escola Politecnia da USP)
T. Kikuno (Osaka Univ.)

Thursday (11/30) 13:30 - 15:00
An Inspection List for Critical Software Analysis
J.R. Almeida Jr., J.B. Camargo Jr., B.A. Basseto, R.S. Cunha, S.M. Paz (Polytechnis School-University of San Paulo) [Paz]
Systematic Generation of Software Test Items Based on System Behavior from User's Viewpoint
M. Hirayama, T. Yamamoto, T. Kishimoto (Toshiba), O. Mizuno, T. Kikuno (Osaka University) [Hirayama]
The Formalized Models of an Evaluation of a Verification Process of Critical Digital Systems Software
V.S. Kharchenko (Kharkov Military University), S.A. Vilkomir (Ukrainian State Scientific and Technical Center on Nuclear and Radiation Safety)
A dependability indicator for computer networks with multiple types of connection technologies
P. Tsopelas, A. Platis (University of Aegean) [Tsopelas]

Human Factors in Transportation
N. Cavanagh (Det Norske Veritas(DNV))
T. Matsuoka (Ship Research Institute)

Thursday (11/30) 13:30 - 15:00
Evaluation of Task Allocation Schemes via Probabilistic Simulation with Human Cognitive Models
H. Furukawa, T. Inagaki, T. Kunioka (University of Tsukuba), Y. Murohara (Ship Research Institute) [Furukawa]
Probabilistic Analysis of Human Interaction with Automated Alerts
T. Inagaki (University of Tsukuba), R. Parasuraman (The Catholic University of America) [Inagaki]
Safety-Integrity of Safety-Related System with Human Beings
T. Kawahara, T. Kushibiki (Toshiba Advanced Systems Corp.), K. Tsuboi, Y. Sato (Tokyo University of Mercantile Marine) [Kawahara]
Signals Passed at Danger (SPADS) A New Insight
P. Dray, L.E. Sutton (Four Elements/ERM), P. Menter (London Underground Limited) [Sutton]

Reliability-centerd Operation and Maintenance of Power Plant
J.-M. Chantron (EDF)
Y. Imai (Kagawa University)

Thursday (11/30) 13:30 - 15:00
A Method for Designing Coordinated H-PSS's to Damp Interarea Oscillation
S. Adi, N. Yorino, H. Sasaki (Hiroshima University), H. Sugihara (The Chugoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Japan) [Adi]
Power System Oscillation Damping in the Presence of Input Saturation by Robust H-SVC Controller
F. Armansyah, N. Yorino, H. Sasaki (Hiroshima University) [Armansyah]
Estimate of the Impact of Changes to a Preventive Maintenance Plan on the Operating Safety of Electrical Systems
J-M. Chantron, J. Aupied (Electricite de France) [Chantron]
Design of a Field Database System for Probabilistic Life Prediction of Steam Turbine
Y. Imai (Kagawa University), N. Okabe, M. Tsutsumi (Ehime University), H. Ishikawa (Kagawa University) [Imai]

Extended Utilization of PSAs in Regulatory Procedures
C. Spitzer (TUV Energy and Systems Technology)

Thursday (11/30) 13:30 - 15:00
Risk-Informed Achievements And Initiatives For The Onset of The New Millenium at USNRC
G.M. Holahan, R.J. Barrett, M.P. Rubin, F.M. Reinhart, A. el-Bassioni, M.C. Cheok, G.W. Parry, S.M. Wong (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission) [Parry]
Utilization of PSAs in Regulatory Procedures in Slovak Republic
Z. Kovacs (RELKO Ltd.), J. Husarcek (Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Slovak Republic) [Kovacs]
A new Importance Measure for Risk Informed Decision Making
E. Borgonovo, G.E. Apostolakis (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) [Apostolakis]
Living PSA Programme - A Support Framework for a Risk-based Decision Making
M. Patrik (Nuclear Research Institute Rez) [Patrik]

Analysis of Specific Safety-Related Issues
N. Tanaka (NUPEC)
M. Richner (Nordostschweizerische Kraftwerke)

Thursday (11/30) 13:30 - 15:00
Integrated Probabilistic Safety Assessment of Pressurized Thermal Shock for U.S. Pressurized Water Reactors
W.J. Galyean, P.H. McCabe (Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory), N.O. Siu, H.W. Woods, E.A. Thornsbury (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission) [Siu]
Experimental Studies on Local Hydrogen Behaviors at Subcompartment in the NPP Containment
U.J. Lee, G.C. Park (Seoul National University)
A Framework for Assessing Hydrogen Management Strategies Involving Multiple Decisions
S.D. Lee, K.Y. Suh, G.C. Park (Seoul National University), M. Jae (Hansung University) [Suh]
Development of a Transient Hydrogen Generation Model for Metal-Water Interactions
J.Y. Lee, S.D. Lee, G.C. Park, K.Y. Suh (Seoul National University) [Lee]

Maintenance/Replacement Strategy
M. Higuchi(Japan Atomic Power Company)

Thursday (11/30) 15:30 - 17:00
Periodic Replacement Strategies for Availability Maxmization
D. Ait-Kadi (Laval University), A. Chelbi (Ecole Superieure des Sciences et Techniques de Tunis) [Ait-Kadi]
Optimal Age and Discrete Replacement Policies for a Two-unit System with Shock Damage Interaction
T. Satow, S. Osaki (Hiroshima University) [Satow]
Evaluation of Maintenance Strategies for Steam Generator Tubes in Pressurized Water Reactors (I) - Risk Analyses -
M. Sagisaka, Y. Isobe (Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd.), S. Yoshimura, G. Yagawa (University of Tokyo) [Sagisaka]
Evaluation of Maintenance Strategies for Steam Generator Tubes in Pressurized Water Reactors (II) - Cost and Profitability -
Y. Isobe, M. Sagisaka (Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd.), S. Yoshimura, G. Yagawa (University of Tokyo) [Isobe]

Panel on MOSAIC 2
Y. Fujita (Technova)
J. Wreathall (John Wreathall & company)

Thursday (11/30) 15:30 - 17:00

Software Development
S. Osaki (Hiroshima Univ.)

Thursday (11/30) 15:30 - 17:00
Development of Restructuring Template for MELCOR
S.H. Park, H.D. Kim, D.H. Kim, Y.M. Song, B.D. Chung (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) [Park]
Age-Dependent Optimal Warranty Policy and Its Application to Software Maintenance Contract
T. Dohi, H. Okamura (Hiroshima University), N. Kaio (Hiroshima Shudo University), S. Osaki (Hiroshima University) [Okamura]
Safety, Danger and Catastrophe Inevitability in Operation of Safety- Critical Software Algorithms: A Possible New Look at Software Safety Analysis
A.A. Povyakalo (Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering) [Povyakalo]

Reliability and Safety in Transportation
M.V. Frank (Safety Factor Associate, Inc.)

Thursday (11/30) 15:30 - 17:00
A Reliability Analysis of Nationwide Transportation Network against Earthquake Risk
K. Takahashi (Asian Institute of Technology), H. Ieda (University of Tokyo), Y. Muraki (East Japan Railway) [Takahashi]
Integrated Safety Program of L-610G Transport Aeroplane Development
R. Holub, Z. Vintr (Military Academy in Brno) [Vintr]
An Analysis of Titanic Accident by Probabilistic Approach
N. Mitomo, H. Matsukura, T. Matsuoka (Ship Research Institute) [Mitomo]

Nuclear Accident and Competitive Risk

Thursday (11/30) 15:30 - 17:00
Lifetime Leukemia and Solid Cancers Risk Assessment in the Workers Irradiated as a Result of the Accident at the Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine in 1998
B.A. Ledoshchuk (Research Centre of Radiation Medicine), G.R. Howe (US Columbia University), O.A. Bobylova (Ministry of Health of Ukraine), N.A. Gudzenko (Research Centre for Radiation Medicine), L.A. Procenko (Ministry of Energy of Ukraine), N.G. Babkina (Research Centre for Radiation Medicine), V.P. Martynenko (Ministry of Energy of Ukraine) [Ledoshchuk]
Leukemia Risk Analysis in Chernobyl Accident Clean-up Workers in Ukraine
N.A. Gudzenko (Research Center for Radiation Medicine), B.A. Ledoshchuk (Ministry of Energy of Ukraine) [Gudzenko]
Dynamical Tendencies of Health Consequences Caused by Competitive Risk Factors
A.A Bykov (Russian Academy of Economics), I.A. Pronina (Moscow State University), G.I. Kudriavtsev (Izhevskiy zavod "Axion-Holding") [Bykov]
Competitive Risk Modelling for Population Mortality: Analysis of Environmental Influence on Human Health
I.A. Pronina (Moscow State University), A.A. Bykov (Russian Academy of Economics), G.I. Kudriavtsev (Izhevskiy zavod "Axion-Holding") [Bykov]

Small Accidents with Large Public Impact
R.A. Bari (Brookhaven National Laboratory)

Thursday (11/30) 15:30 - 17:00
Lessons Learned from MONJU Sodium Leak Accident
R. Nakai, K. Ito, T. Nagata (Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute) [Nakai]
Are Risk Measures Suitably Defined to Manage Risks That Could Lead to a Large Public Impact?
R.A. Bari (Brookhaven National Laboratory) [Bari]
Residents Call for Greater Openness, Accountability and Involvement : Lessons Learned from the JCO Criticality Accident
T. Taniguchi, M. Kosugi, T. Tsuchiya (Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry) [Taniguchi]

Operator Support System
I.S. Kim (Hanyang Univ.)
H. Ujita (Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation)

Thursday (11/30) 15:30 - 17:00
PSA-Based Expert System as an Operator Assistance during Severe Accidents
S.S. Rivera, J.H. Baron (Universidad Nacional de Cuyo) [Baron]
Study on Designing the Operation Support System
Y. Shimada, A.G. Hossam, K. Suzuki (Okayama University) [Shimada]